Tunnelling, Squeezing, Schistosity, Heterogeneity, Analytical Solution, Numerical Modelling, Segmental Lining
The magnitude of squeezing deformations in tunnelling often varies over short distances, even if there is no obvious change in the construction method, in the depth of cover, in the lithology or rock structure. As long as the reasons for the variability are not known, the tunnelling-induced convergences cannot be predicted with sufficient reliability. Reliable predictions, however, are important for determining the temporary support or the excavation diameter. Otherwise, large-scale tunnel repairs may be necessary, which can cause delay and additional costs due to remedial actions as well as due to the enforced interruption of other operations in progress at the same time.